Annette Molinaro MA, PhD

Annette Molinaro, PhD
  • Professor in Residence of Neurological Surgery and Epidemiology and Biostatistics

  • Director, Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics

  • Principal Investigator, Brain Tumor Center

  • Co-Director, Clinical and Biostatistics Core, UCSF Brain SPORE

  • Co-Director, Biospecimen and Biostatistics Core, UCSF Brain P01

    Dr. Molinaro is a principal investigator in the UCSF Brain Tumor Center and the Co-Director of the Clinical and Biostatistics Core for the UCSF Brain SPORE as well as the Co-Director of the Biospecimen and Biostatistics Core for the UCSF Brain Tumor Program Project Grant (P01). Dr. Molinaro’s research interests are primarily focused on statistical genetics and computational biology, including prediction, survival analysis, classification, and causal inference with additional curiosities in cancer epidemiology and in the estimation of absolute risk in stratified case-cohort studies. Her research has pertained to predicting clinical outcomes with high-dimensional explanatory variables, such as SNP and methylation arrays, and large-scale epidemiology studies. This has included an adaptation to Classification and Regression Trees (CART) for survival outcomes, the introduction of partDSA, a novel data-adaptive algorithm that builds Boolean combinations of explanatory variables as individual trees as well as an aggregate learner, and a non-parametric method for point estimation based on a stratified case-cohort study design. In addition, she has worked with collaborators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on comparing cross-validation approaches to validating predictors in small sample sizes and the power of data mining methods for detecting genetic associations and interactions. Dr. Molinaro was awarded an R01 by the NCI to expand partDSA for building risk models accommodating various study designs and competing risks.

    Education, Training, and Previous Positions

    1998: BSc, Florida State University
    2000: MA, University of California, Berkeley
    2004: PhD, University of California, Berkeley
    1998 – 2004: Biostatistician, UCSF Cancer Center
    2004 – 2005: Postdoctoral Fellow, Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute
    2005 – 2011: Assistant Professor, Biostatistics, Yale University Schools of Public Health & Medicine
    2005 – 2011: Co-Director Bioinformatics & Biostatistics Core, Skin SPORE, Yale University
    2011-Present: Departments of Neurological Surgery and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCSF

    Selected Professional Memberships and Appointments

    Elected Board of Directors Member, Society of Neuro-Oncology
    Editorial Board, Neuro-Oncology Practice
    Editor, 'Series on Biostatistics for the Practicing Clinician," Neuro-Oncology Practice
    Associate Editor, Biometrics
    Elected Member, International Statistical Institute 
    Member, Society for Neuro-Oncology
    Member, Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium
    Member, American Statistical Association
    Member, International Biometric Society
    Member, Institute of Mathematical Statistics 
    Member, Caucus for Women in Statistics
    Member, Statistical Modelling Society

    Selected Honors and Awards

    2004: Evelyn Fix Prize, University of California, Berkeley
    2004: Chin Long Chiang Biostatistics Student of the Year, University of California, Berkeley
    2006: Elected Member, International Statistical Institute
    2008: Yale School of Public Health’s Teacher of the Year
    2009: Yale Center for Clinical Investigation Scholar
    2013: Diane D. Ralston Clniical and Basic Neuroscience Teaching Award
    2017: Selected for the Teaching Scholars Program, UCSF

    Selected Recent Publications

    Steingrimsson JA, Diao L, Molinaro AM, Strawderman RL. Doubly Robust Trees. Statistics in Medicine 2016; 35(20):3595–3612. 

    Molinaro AM, Sison JD, Ljung B-M, Tlsty TD, Kerlikowske K. Risk prediction for Local vs. Regional/Metastatic Tumors after Initial Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Diagnosis Treated by Lumpectomy. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 2016 Jun;157(2):351-61.

    Clark AJ, Safaee M, Chou D, Weinstein PR, Molinaro AM, Clark JP, Mummaneni PV. Comparative Sensitivity of Intraoperative Motor Evoked Potential Monitoring in Predicting Postoperative Neurologic Deficits: Nondegenerative versus Degenerative Myelopathy. Global spine journal 6(5):452-458 Aug 2016. 

    Moore CL, Daniels B, Singh D, Luty S, Gunabushanam G, Ghita M, Molinaro AM, Gross CP. Ureteral Stones: Implementation of a Reduced Dose CT Protocol in Patients in the Emergency Department with Moderate to High Likelihood of Calculi on the Basis of STONE Score. Radiology 2016, 280:3, 743-751.

    Pugh SL and Molinaro AM. The nuts and bolts of hypothesis testing. Neuro-Oncology Practice. (2016) 3 (3): 139-144.

    Imber BS, Kanungo I, Braunstein S, Barani IJ, Fogh SE, Nakamura J, Berger MS, Chang EF, Molinaro AM, Cabrera J, McDermott MW, Sneed PK, Aghi MK. Indications and Efficacy of Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Recurrent Glioblastoma: Two Decades of Institutional Experience.  Neurosurgery, in press.

    Cabrera J, Taylor J, Molinaro AM. Phase I Cancer Clinical Trials. Neuro-Oncology Practice, in press. 

    Roddy E, Sear K, Felton E, Tamrazi B, Gauvain K, Torkildson J, Del Buono B, Samuel D, Hass-Kogan DA, Chen J, Goldsby RE, Banerjee A, Lupo JM, Molinaro AM, Fullerton HJ, Mueller S. Presence of cerebral microbleeds is associated with worse executive function in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Neuro-Oncology 18(11):1548-1558 Nov 2016.

    Nelson SJ, Li Y, Lupo JM, Olson M, Crane JC, Molinaro AM, Roy R, Clarke J, Butowski N, Prados M, Cha S, Chang SM. Serial analysis of 3D H-1 MRSI for patients with newly diagnosed GBM treated with combination therapy that includes bevacizumab. In press, Journal of Neuro-Oncology.

    Han SJ, Reis G, Kohanbash G, Srivastav S, Magill ST, Molinaro AM, McDermott MW, Theodosopoulos PV, Aghi MK, Berger MS, Butowski NA, Barani I, Phillips JJ, Perry A, Okada H. Expression and prognostic impact of immune modulatory molecule PD-L1 in meningioma. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 2016 Dec;130(3):543-552.

    Lindberg OR, McKinney A, Engler JR, Koshkakaryan G, Gong H, Robinson A, Ewald AJ, Huillard E, James CD, Molinaro AM, Shieh JTC, Phillips JJ. GBM heterogeneity as a function of variable epidermal growth factor receptor variant III activity. Oncotarget. 2016 Nov 29;7(48):79101-79116.

    Flanigan PM*, Jahangiri A*, Kuang R, Truong A, Choi S, Chou A, Rick JW, Chang SM, Molinaro AM, McDermott MW, Berger MS, Aghi MK. Improved Survival with Decreased Wait Time to Surgery in Glioblastoma Patients Presenting with Seizure. Neurosurgery. 2016. *Shared First Authors.

    Kuang R, Jahangiri A, Mascharak S, Nguyen A, Chandra A, Flanigan PM, Yagnik G, Wagner JR, De Lay M, Carrera D, Castro BA, Hayes J, Sidorov M, Garcia JLI, Eriksson P, Ronen S, Phillips J, Molinaro A, Koliwad S and Aghi MK.  GLUT3 Upregulation Promotes Metabolic Reprogramming that Hallmarks Anti-Angiogenic Therapy Resistance. JCI Insight. 2017 Jan 26; 2(2):e88815.

    Wahl M, Phillips JJ, Molinaro AM, Lin Y, Perry A, Haas-Kogan DA, Costello J, Dayal M, Butowski N, Clarke JL, Prados M, Nelson S, Berger MS, Chang SM. Chemotherapy for Adult Low Grade Gliomas: Clinical Outcomes by Molecular Subtype in a Phase II Study of Adjuvant Temozolomide. Neuro Oncol. 2017 Feb 1;19(2):242-251.

    Zhang Y, Cartmel B, Choy CC, Molinaro AM, Leffell DJ, Bale AE, Mayne ST, Ferrucci LM. Body Mass Index, Height and Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Case-Control Study.  Cancer Epidemiology. 2017 Feb; 46:66-72.

    Nelson SJ, Kadambi AK, Park I, Li Y, Crane J, Olson M, Molinaro AM, Roy R, Butowski N, Cha S and Chang S.  Association of early changes in 1H MRSI parameters with survival for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma receiving a multimodality treatment regimen. Neuro Oncol. 2017 Mar 1;19(3):430-439.

    Wiencke JK,  Koestler DC, Salas L, Wiemels J, Roy R,  Hansen H,  Rice T,  McCoy L, Bracci P, Molinaro A,  Kelsey KT, Wrensch M, Christensen BC. Immunomethylomic approach to explore the blood neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in glioma survival. Clinical Epigenetics. 2017; 9:10.

    Neill E, Luks T, Dayal M, Phillips JJ, Perry A, Jalbert LE, Cha S, Molinaro AM, Chang SM, and Nelson SJ. Quantitative Multi-modal MR Imaging as a Non-Invasive Prognostic Tool for Patients with Recurrent Low-Grade Glioma. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 2017 Mar;132(1):171-179.

    Jalbert LE, Elkhaled A, Phillips JJ, Neill E, Williams A, Crane J, Olson M, Molinaro AM, Berger M, Kurhanewicz J, Ronen S, Chang S, Nelson S. Metabolic Profiling of Malignant Transformation and IDH-mutation in Infiltrating Glioma. Nature Scientific Reports. 2017 Mar 22; 7:44792

    Clarke JL, Molinaro AM, Cabrera JR, DeSilva AA, Rabbitt JE, Prey J, Drummond DC, Kim J, Noble C, Fitzgerald JB, Chang SM, Butowski NA, Taylor JW, Prados MD.  A phase I trial of intravenous liposomal irinotecan in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 2017 Mar;79(3):603-610. doi: 10.1007/s00280-017-3247-3. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

    Zygourakis CC, Imber BS, Chen R, Han SJ, Blevins L, Molinaro AM, Kahn JG, Aghi MK. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Surgical versus Medical Treatment of Prolactinomas. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2017 Apr;78(2):125-131.

    Pekmezci M, Rice T, Molinaro AM, Walsh K, Decker PA, Hansen H, Sicotte H, Kollmeyer TM, McCoy LS, Sarkar G, Perry A, Giannini C, Tihan T, Berger MS, Wiemels JL, Bracci PM, Eckel-Passow JE, Lachance DH, ClarkeJ, Taylor JW, Luks T, Wiencke JK, Jenkins RB, Wrensch MR. Adult Infiltrating Gliomas with WHO 2016 Integrated Diagnosis: Additional Prognostic Roles of ATRX and TERT. Acta Neuropathologica.  2017 Mar 02. PMID: 28255664.

    Olshen A, Strawderman RJ, Ryslik G, Lostritto K, Arnold A, Molinaro AM. Novel aggregate deletion/substitution/addition learning algorithms for recursive partitioning. In print, Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics.

    Flanigan PM, Jahangiri A, Kuang R, Truong A, Choi S, Chou A, Molinaro AM, McDermott MW, Berger MS, Aghi MK. Developing an Algorithm for Optimizing Care of Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma. Neurosurgery. 2017 May 5. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx148. [Epub ahead of print] 

    Taylor JW, Molinaro AM, Butowski N, Prados M. Clinical trial endpoints for patients with gliomas. In print, Neuro-Oncology Practice.

    Wahl M, Chang SM, Phillips JJ, Molinaro AM, Costello JF, Mazor T, Alexandrescu S, Lupo JM, Nelson SJ, Berger M, Prados M, Taylor JW, Butowski N, Clarke JL, Haas-Kogan D. Probing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in gliomas: A phase 2 study of everolimus for recurrent adult low-grade gliomas. Cancer. 2017 Jul 31. [Epub ahead of print]

    Mazor T, Chesnelong C, Pankov A, Jalbert LE, Hong C, Hayes J, Smirnov IV, Marshall R, Souza CF, Shen Y, Viswanath P, Noushmehr H, Ronen SM, Jones SJM, Marra MA, Cairncross JG, Perry A, Nelson SJ, Chang SM, Bollen AW, Molinaro AM, Bengtsson H, Olshen AB, Weiss S, Phillips JJ, Luchman HA, Costello JF. Clonal expansion and epigenetic reprogramming following deletion or amplification of mutant IDH1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017 Oct 3;114(40):10743-10748.

    Anwar M, Molinaro AM, Morin O, Chang SM, Haas-Kogan DA, Nelson SJ, Lupo JM. Identifying Voxels at Risk for Progression in Glioblastoma Based on Dosimetry, Physiologic, and Metabolic MRI. Radiat Res. 2017 Sep;188(3):303-313.

    Jacobs DI, Liu Y, Gabrusiewicz K, Tsavachidis S, Armstrong GN, Zhou R, Wei J, Ivan C, Calin G, Molinaro AM, Rice T, Bracci PM, Hansen HM, Wiencke JK, Wrensch MR, Heimberger AB, Bondy ML. Germline polymorphisms in myeloid-associated genes are not associated with glioma survival. J Neurooncol. 2017 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print]

    Autry A, Phillips J, Maleschlijski S, Roy R, Molinaro AM, Chang S, Cha S, Lupo J, Nelson S. Characterization of metabolic, diffusion, and perfusion properties in GBM: contrast-enhancing versus non-enhancing tumor. In print, Translational Oncology.

    Byron SA, Tran NL, Halperin RF, Phillips JJ, Kuhn JG, de Groot JF, Colman H, Ligon KL, Wen PY, Cloughesy TF, Mellinghoff IK, Butowski N, Taylor J, Clarke JL, Chang SM, Berger MS, Molinaro AM, Maggiora GM, Peng S, Nasser S, Liang WD, Trent JM, Berens ME, Carpten JD, Craig DW, Prados MD. Prospective feasibility trial for genomics-informed treatment in recurrent and progressive glioblastoma. In print, Clinical Cancer Research.